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Xact Natural Pest Management

Glossary

Entries in this glossary are arranged alphabetically. An entry may be a single word, such as dust, a phrase, such as integrated pest management , or an acronym, such as NPMA.

The following cross-references are used to show a term's relationship to other terms in the glossary:


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Active Ingredient
The chemical or substance component of a pesticide that is intended to kill, repel, attract, mitigate or control a pest.

Acute Toxicity
The poisoning that occurs after a single exposure (effects shortly after exposure). See also Toxicity and Chronic Toxicity.
Attractant
A substance that acts as a lure to attract pests to an insecticide. Could be a pheromone, food, light, heat, etc.

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Bait
Any pesticide mixed with food or another attractive substance. Bait may be either a solid, liquid or granular formulation.

Baiting
A precise, passive treatment method in which bait is placed directly on a surface or in a special container (bait station) that is designed to permit entry to a particular type or types of pests.

Bait Station
A container specially designed to hold bait. Bait stations help keep baits clean, fresh and attractive to the target pests.

Baseboard Spraying
The application of liquid pesticides inside a home by spraying a 6" to 12" band along the baseboards of a wall. See also Broadcast Spraying.

Beneficial Insects
Those insects that are useful or helpful to humans either by pollinating plants or by preying on or competing with pests.

Beneficial Nematodes
See Nematodes.

Biological Pesticides
The use of living natural enemies (antagonistic organisms) to control pests.

Boric Acid
Pesticide products containing boric acid and its sodium salts are registered in the U.S. for use as insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides. As insecticides, some act as stomach poisons in ants, cockroaches, silverfish and termites, while others abrade the exoskeletons of insects.

Botanical Pesticides
Insect toxins that are derived or extracted from plants or plant parts. See also Natural Pesticides, Organic Pesticides, Biological Pesticides

Broadcast Spraying
An imprecise, active treatment method for dispensing a pesticide that is prone to pesticide drift and residue.


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Caution Signal Word
Required on the labels of all products considered slightly toxic to relatively nontoxic orally, dermally or by inhalation, or that cause slight eye or skin irritation. An average adult could be killed by ingesting an ounce to more than a pint of one of these insecticides. All labels must bear the statement, Keep out of reach of children. See also Danger Signal Word and Warning Signal Word.

Chronic Toxicity
The effects of long term or repeated low-level exposures to a toxic substance (cancer, liver damage, reproductive disorders, etc.). See also Toxicity and Acute Toxicity.

Colony
An organized group of the same type of insects that live together usually in some type of nest, and depend on each other for survival.

Contact Insecticides
Products designed to work quickly on the exposed stages of insects either to flush or kill.

Conventional Pesticides
See Synthetic Pesticides.

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Danger Signal Word
Denoted symbolically with a skull-and-cross-bones on the labels of all products that are highly toxic orally, dermally or by inhalation. A few drops to 1 teaspoon will kill an average adult. See also Warning Signal Word and Caution Signal Word.

Desiccant
(1) A chemical agent that absorbs moisture. (2) An insecticide that kills insects by damaging their cuticle thus causing them to dehydrate.

Diatomaceous Earth
Diatomaceous earth is a naturally occurring nontoxic insecticide (mineral) mined from the fossilized silica shell remains of diatoms, (single-celled or colonial algae). It absorbs the waxy layer on insect bodies, abrades the skin, and dries out (desiccates) and kills the insect.

Drift
The movement of a pesticide through air at the time of application or soon thereafter, to any site other than that intended for application (often referred to as off target). Synonymous with Spray Drift. See also Baseboard Spraying, Broadcast Spraying.

Dust
An insecticide dust is a dry formulation of a contact insecticide that attaches to an insect when the insect walks by or over it.

Dusting
A pest-product treatment technique for applying a thin coat of dust bait to a given area. See also Void Injection.

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EPA
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The agency that oversees the federal regulation of pesticides (as one of its areas of management).

Exclusion Treatment Method
Protecting an area against pest access either by mechanical alteration (physical exclusion) or by rendering access points and harborage impassable via pesticide repellency (pesticide exclusion). Exclusion involves altering the environment so pests can not get through.

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FIFRA
The federal law that governs pesticide registration known as the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act.

Foraging
The act of seeking out food. Pests that live in colony send out foraging member to collect food and return it to the colony for others colony members to ear.
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Gel Bait
A gel formulation of a bait in a gel. The bait has a consistency much like gel toothpastes. See also Granular Bait.

Granular Bait
A granule formulation of a bait. See also Gel Bait.

GRAS List
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) substances that are Generally Regarded As Safe. In other words, substances that have been tested and deemed acceptable for human use by the FDA. Minimum-Risk Products that are exempt from federal registration have active and inert ingredients found on the GRAS List.

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Harborage
A place of refuge or shelter for a pest.

Habitat Modification
Modification of the habitat or area in which the pests are thriving so to deny pest one of the three life necessity that they seek: food, water and harborage .

High Toxicity
A characteristic of pest-suppression materials that make them a high risk of poisoning animals.See also Low Toxicity.
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Inert Ingredient
Substances that are not active, such as water, petroleum distillates, corn meal, or soaps.

Integrated Pest Management
A decision making process that helps you determine whether, when and how to treat a pest problem.

IPM (Integrated Pest Management)
See Integrated Pest Management.

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Knockdown
The ability of a pesticide or device to immobilize a pest. In many cases, the knockdown may cause death, but not always.

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Limestone
A naturally occurring sedimentary rock (calcium carbonate) that when ground up can be used as a insecticidal desiccant.

Liquid Bait
A bait in liquid form that is ingested by pests.

LOHAS
LOHAS is an acronym for Lifestyles of Health and Sustainability. It is a $227 billion market segment in the United States. LOHAS consumers are those who are passionate about the environment, sustainability, social issues, and health. The marketplace includes goods and services such as: organic and natural foods, organic and natural personal care products, hybrid cars, green building, energy efficiency, socially responsible investing, natural household products and services.

Low Toxicity
A characteristic of pest-suppression materials that make them a low risk of poisoning animals.Same as Minimal Risk.

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Minimum Risk Pesticides
Minimum risk pesticides are certain products exempted from EPA registration containing only active ingredients outlined in FIFRA 40 CFR 152.25(g) (“the 25b list”) and inert ingredients currently identified on Federal Register Notice 59 FR 49400 (“the 4A list”). The EPA has determined the ingredients on these lists do not pose any risk to humans or the environment.

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Natural Pest Management
A form of Integrated Pest Management that uses low-impact natural, organic, botanical and biological material to suppression structural pest problems.

Natural Pesticides
Products derived from naturally occurring substances (e.g., plants, minerals, etc.) used to suppress pest activities. See also Organic Pesticides. Contrast with Synthetic Pesticides.

Nematodes
Are microscopic, non-segmented roundworms that occur naturally in soil throughout the world. Nematodes are a type of biological pesticide.

Non-Target Organisms
Organisms (such as plants or beneficial insects) that are not the primary target of a pesticide, but are nonetheless killed or otherwise harmed.

NOP/OMRI Organic Classification
The National Organic Program (NOP) is a Federal program that has developed national organic standards, while the Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) is a non-profit organization that specializes in the review of substances for use in organic production, processing and handling.

NPMA
The National Pest Management Association, which is the national trade association for the professional pest control industry.

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Organic Pesticides
(1) Typically pesticides that come from natural sources. (2) This term is technically less accurate than Natural Pesticides, which more accurately distinguish naturally occurring pesticides from man-made pesticides (Synthetic Pesticides). (3) This term may also apply to pesticides whose active and inert ingredients and all uses of the pesticide meet the criteria defined in the U.S. Department of Agricultures National Organic Program (NOP) Rule. See also Natural Pesticides. Contrast with Synthetic Pesticides.

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Perimeter Spraying
See Broadcast Spraying.

Pesticide
Any substance for preventing, destroying, repelling or mitigating any pest.

Pheromone
Bug hormones or scents that stimulate the type of scent produced by female insect to seduce or lure their male counterparts.

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Residual Insecticides
Provide long-lasting pesticide activity. Usually, the pest will make contact with the pesticide as it crawls through a treated site. See also Contact Insecticides.

Restricted-Use Pesticides
Dangerous pesticides that only can be sold to or used by certified applicators. Extreme care must be taken when using these pesticides, since there is significant risk to the applicator (pest-control technician) as well as people, pets and the environment.

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Spot Treatment
Applying a pest-control product to treat a small area where targeted pests are likely to come into contact with the pest-control material.

Spray Drift
See Drift.

Structural Pest Control
The control of pests in and around homes, offices and other building structures.

Synthetic Pesticides
Pesticides that are man-made such as chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates, and pyrethroids.

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Toxicity
The capacity of a chemical to do harm to an organism by other than mechanical means. See also Acute Toxicity and Chronic Toxicity.

Traditional Pest Control
The common approach to pest control used by most of the 20,000 professional pest control companies in the United States. Treatment methods rely primarily on the spraying of synthetic pesticides on walls, baseboards, house perimeter and lawns.

Trapping
Treatment method for physically capturing a pest. Trapping can aid in identifying pests, measuring pest populations, or acting as a control mechanism.

Traps
Devices that physically restrain pests.

Treatment Methods
The actions taken to solve pest problems.

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Void Injection
A treatment method on enclosed spaces where insects may live, hide or travel.

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Warning Signal Word
Required on the labels of all products that are moderately toxic orally, dermally, or by inhalation, or that cause moderate eye and skin irritation. One to two teaspoonfuls by mouth could kill an average adult. See also Danger Signal Word and Caution Signal Word.
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